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Cognitive Strategy Instruction

Reading

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photo of kids reading

Reading

Word Identification

Dissect (Lenz, B.K., & Hughes, C.A. )

This reading strategy is a word identification strategy designed to help students with mild disabilities. It is a systematic process through which multisyllabic words can be recognized in reading assignments in content areas.

SCUBA-D (Salembier, G.C., & Cheng, L.C.) SCUBA-D is a word identification strategy designed to help students identify difficult words in their textbook reading.

Reading Comprehension


Active Reading (Archer, A., & Gleason, M.)
This reading comprehension strategy is designed to aid students in being more active readers. This strategy is part of a larger strategy intended to help students complete assignments accurately and on time.

CAPS (Leinhardt, G., & Zigmond, N.)
This reading comprehension strategy is a self-questioning strategy that can be used to help students find answers to questions about what is important in a story.

FIST (Clark, F.L., Warner, M.M., Alley, G.R., Deshler, D.D., Schumaker, J.B., Vetter, A.F., & Nolan, S.M.)
This reading comprehension strategy is a self-questioning strategy designed to help students be more independent and efficient readers.

Question-Generation Instructional Procedure
(Davey, B., & McBride, S.)
This reading comprehension strategy was designed to prompt students to generate "think-type" questions while reading, and in doing so encourage students to be more active readers and increase their awareness of whether they are comprehending or not. The rationale that Davey and McBride provided their students with after reading a passage was that "think-type" questions, "Help you remember key information; they help you to know if you need to reread; they also help you to anticipate test questions."

RAP (Schumaker, J.B., Denton, P., & Deshler, DD)
This reading comprehension strategy utilizes a paraphrasing technique to enhance reading comprehension.

Reading Visual Aids Strategy
(Barry, M.)
This reading comprehension strategy employs the use of visual aids to increase understanding.

RIDER (Clark, FL, Warner, M.M., Alley, G.R., Deshler, DD, Schumaker, J.B., Vetter, AF, & Nolan S.M.)
This reading comprehension strategy uses visual imagery. Students use visual imagery when learning new material by transforming what is to be learned into meaningful visual, auditory, or kinesthetic images of the information.

Story Grammar
(Short, E.J., & Ryan, E.B)
This reading comprehension strategy was designed to provide students with a strategic plan for selecting important aspects of story information for further study, by asking themselves the five "wh" questions.

Story Map (Idol, L.)
A comprehension strategy for both skilled and unskilled readers.

Textbook Reading


Multipass (Schumaker, J.B., Deshlerl, D.D., Denton, P., Alley, G.R., Clark, F.L., & Warner, M.M.)
This reading comprehension strategy is a textbook reading strategy. This strategy has many sub-strategies, and because it requires advanced entry-level skills, teachers need to consider the skills that a student must have in order to be successful at mastering the strategy. Students must be able to paraphrase, interpret visual aids, use self-questioning reading strategies, and scan prose before learning this strategy.

PARS (Cheek, E.H., Jr., & Cheek, M.C.)
This reading comprehension strategy is a simplified textbook-reading strategy that is good for younger students or students without much experience using textbooks.

POSSE (Englert, C., & Mariage, T.)
This reading comprehension strategy includes many reading practices that have been shown to aid reading comprehension, such as graphic organizers, text structures, stimulation of student background knowledge, and self-monitoring.

SCROL (Grant, R.)
This is a reading comprehension strategy for students in middle and upper grades to help them read and understand a variety of source books. It teaches students to use text headings to aid their comprehension and help them find and remember important information.

Self-Questioning Summarization Strategy (Wong, B.Y.L., Wong, R., Perry, N., & Sawatsky, D.) This reading comprehension strategy is a self-questioning summarization strategy that was developed to aid student learning and retention of social studies text materials. It is essentially an executive routine to direct their use of summarization skillls to social studies materials, although it may be used in other content areas.

Warm-up (Archer, A., & Gleason, M.)
This reading comprehension strategy is designed to help students in content area classes. This strategy is part of a larger strategy intended to help students complete assignments accurately and on time.